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Moreover, to characterise ontological and ideological individualism as an illusion implies nothing about the value of socially constituted but singular individuals, who have the right to have rights. Another partial analogy to the quantum world is that no pure observation of the social world, thus constituted, is possible.

Particles or wave-functions do not evaluate or criticise; whereas we humans as complex, conscious and knowledgeable actors do. Rovelli talks about the end of infinity.

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Cosmos is vast, but finite. The end of infinity implies fundamental criticism of approaches such as string theory that presuppose movements in a continuum. But what is especially noteworthy is that ignorance tends to lead to mystification. Not only do we have uncomplicated and well-structured versions of QT that make this kind of mystification quite unnecessary.

It is also the case that analogous ontological and epistemological conceptions have been known to a large number of philosophers and social scientists for centuries. Hermeneutico-dialectical approaches to philosophy and social sciences have explored themes now associated with quantum mechanics at least since the 18th century, such as subject-object and part-whole relationships and the relational and processual nature of reality.

There is no reason to deny the reality of time, space and causation this denial does not follow from QT , although our conceptions of them can and do change. Attempts to theorise society in quantum terms is largely a category mistake, although quantum-like features can occur also at larger scales and although analogies between the two can sometimes be illuminating. Instead of multiplying the universe by zillions; denying the reality of time, space and causation; or mystifying quanta and rocks as conscious beings; I would like to propose a rather different claim: better understandings of history and social dynamics could contribute to scientific developments.

Moreover, as Wendt insists, adequate interpretations and further development of theoretical physics and cosmology require critical distance-taking from the dominant Western metaphysics. For instance, we can now see that there is a sense in which Aristotle was right after all: causation can be also formal or formative and final, rather than just efficient and material, while these categories now assume new, post-Aristotelian meanings. The degree of our freedom can be increased by replacing particular unnecessary, unwanted and often misrepresented causal sources of determination with more wanted, needed and more clearly understood sources of causal determination, increasing our autonomy as self-determination.

Contra Wendt, freedom is not something that is inscribed in the probabilism of the wave-function. Frankly, I have difficulties in understanding how random probabilistic events could mean freedom. Rather, freedom is a contingent ethico-political project that only holo reflexive actors such as we can carry on.

The Weirdness of Consciousness

Just one final remark. While I do not find the idea of panpsychism particularly plausible, there is nonetheless a sense in which consciousness seems imprinted in the fine texture of cosmos. We are part of the whole of cosmos, not observers separate from it. From this perspective, what the emergence of consciousness means is that the creative cosmos is becoming conscious of itself — and not necessarily only on our planet Earth. In this, neither M the amount of money nor V the velocity of money is in practice measurable, and both P price level and T amount of transactions involve uncertainties.

In spite of these and other differences — Nils Bohr was also interested in Buddhism, pragmatism and other strands of thought — the instrumentalism of the Copenhagen interpretation of QT and F-twist share the idea that neither truth nor meaning really matters. What matters is whether a theory works in the sense of implying predictions, making it possible to manipulate reality for some technical, pragmatic or ideological purpose. In accordance with many variations of liberalism, it is also assumed that these ends are in some sense arbitrary or subjective; it is not the task of science to say anything about them.

Friedman: Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. Reflections on the Milton Friedman Legacy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Indeed, for me, much of quantum theory becomes much clearer and less mystical. Many of the paradoxes like schizophrenic cats, the watchdog effect, delayed choice effects, etc. In fact the more 1 explored the Bohm model, the more I was puzzled as to why people have turned it into an ideological battle.

These structures involve an important role for active information and formal causality, and these seem to connect matter and mind through an analogy. But Bohm is saying nothing about panpsychism in this paper or elsewhere, as far as I know. As a species homo sapiens emerged in Africa at least , years ago.

III. An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

For most of its existence, homo sapiens has lived similarly to its hominid predecessors and contemporaries. There is no evidence of the effects of complex language and society — certainly no traces of history, religion, arts, architecture, science, or philosophy — before the first cave paintings appeared some 30,, years ago. The development of language was very slow compared to cultural-historical scales of time but started, step by step, to accelerate.

Each new stage of linguistic learning created new perceptions and attentions, resulting in important cultural changes, which are reflected in the available archaeological record. The first phase is the establishment of clearly recognisable intentional calls. And what is more, this stage of speech had to remain for a long period until such modifiers became stable. This slow development was also necessary so that the basic repertoire of the call system was kept intact to perform its intentional functions.

This age of modifiers perhaps lasted up to 40, B. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, quotation from pp. I do not find it counterintuitive at all. It is entirely plausible to say that all life forms categorize and distinguish between what is good and bad for their reproduction, that all animals can process information and feel effects, and that some animals can also reason and learn, without imputing consciousness to them.

Wendt also dramatizes the leap from non-consciousness stones to consciousness reflective humans. An entangled state is an intertwining that is more than the parts entangled. Succinctly, it can be safely said that, at the end of the day, quantum physics consists of three intrinsically related layers: quantum mechanics, quantum waves, and entanglement. Entanglement can be understood as the strongest argument against mechanism and determinism, for it supersedes individuality. In the literature there is nearly no reference to the relationship between quantum physics and immanence, except for Thiele , who is not rigorous in his understanding.

Some floppy assessments are introduced here and there without any further justification. Indeed, the rationale for transcendence is the assumption of overcoming individuality. A singular entity exists to some extent on its own, but is entirely incomplete; so it seeks to transcend itself — to realize itself in a different stance. In other words, transcendence is a fulfillment of individuality onto a realm that is extrinsic to the existence of the entity considered. Quantum entanglement has been experimentally proven among three or four entities, originally by Fuchs Entanglement is an immanent relationship, i.

Yet, an interpretation of entanglement as immanence has never been openly set out in the literature. Quantum science can be said to be a science of immanence, over against the entire history of science. Reality and consciousness are closely and deeply entangled stances, so they do not exist isolated.

The measurement problem, or also the act of observation is grasped and explained differently once entanglement is incorporated in the corpus of science.

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In other words, the universe cannot be explained in the absence of life; moreover, the universe and life are deeply intertwined. To be sure, quantum entanglement is a much more robust relationship than, say, correlation. An immanent view of the world and reality means that consciousness cannot be merely an epiphenomenon and must have serious consequences in shaping the reality process.

This claim is not to be taken as indicating consciousness creates reality. Instead, consciousness is in an entangled state with the physical universe, so much so that neither can be explained without the other. It is this relationship that gives meaning to any further phenomenon — the entangled relationship between subjective experience i. Generally speaking, quantum entanglement brings out a networked view of reality and the universe in which there is no center no matter what, for what is truly relevant is the clustered relationship that acts as a map, as a graph or hyper-graph, and in which the entire web is much more meaningful than a single clear-cut part of the map or web.

From this perspective, there are no hierarchies in the universe. The focus or emphasis on individual entities constitutes a serious hurdle for getting maps, networks or graphs. Individuality, moreover, entails centrality and hierarchy. In contrast, a quantum view of reality and the universe is an alternative to hierarchical comprehensions of reality, or also to individualized explanations of the world. Be that as it may be, the issue can be stated in different ways, as it has been, indeed, namely as the relationship between mind and matter, or between quantum physics and consciousness or also between mind and brain or consciousness and brain SONG, In any case, entanglement allows for an intrinsically intertwined relation in which neither one extreme nor the other is fundamental or self-consistent.

Matter, the universe, the brain, for instance, are subjects of experience, very much as the mind, consciousness or life are experiences themselves — hence they appear as having a rationale in one time, place or circumstance, and a different meaning and significance according to the way and depth of our experiences. Briefly said, quantum theory modifies radically the very conception and experience of matter, the world and the universe — as any other science, theory or philosophy has ever done. In other words, the universe experiences itself as a living organism via consciousness or intelligence, but intelligence or consciousness exists in a manifold ways.

This leads us on to the next section. I shall claim that consciousness processes information, and it processes information in non-algorithmic ways. Processing information is an act, and action, an experience — a process. Strikingly but meaningfully, the human mind can understand what cannot be done algorithmically. The difference between consciousness and the universe is a difference of time scales — whence the differences between the types of information processing.

Heikki Patomäki – (Mis)uses of Quantum Theory in Our Real Evolutionary Cosmos, part II

The universe can be considered a living being; in this case, nature is alive. This is the crux of the argument. However, within the framework of quantum science a clear support can be found in Kauffman A different approach to the issue can be brought out in the following terms: information processing, learning, memory, decision making, choice, predictive modeling, associative memory, sensory integration and control of behavior are all aspects of biological intelligence BALUSKA et al. Still, consciousness and the mind pervade reality. Biology, thus, encompasses much more than the study of living beings, so much so that quantum science does not follow common sense.

Consciousness and reality are closely entangled and the processing of information is the way in which the entanglement takes place. It should be stressed that consciousness — or mind - is not a singular human feature. Consciousness has been rightly associated with living beings at large, and not only, and not mainly, the great mammals — for it comes all the way down into the lowest levels of nature.

To be sure, the strong free will theorem is certainly a strong defence for anthropocentric worldviews. It shows that particles and waves behave exactly in the way in which subjects of behavioral sciences behave; as a consequence, they are free in the strongest sense of the word; that is, they read the environment and act upon it by choice, and are not just unconscious responses to a stimulus.

The very development of information processing occurs according to the evolution — of the individuals or the species. The nonlinearity of life means that living beings gain information — although not necessarily memory. Living is thus the process by which we gain information, and this is the very condition for learning. Any system that is capable of learning can adapt to the environment.

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Quantum entanglement is the process by which new information is gained and processed at the same time. All in all, the reality of the world depends on our observation. It is the theory what determines what we can see Einstein.